ISSN electrónico: 2007-8951
Volumen 49/ Número 193, abril-junio 2018

Special Economic Zones and their Impact on Regional Economic Development

Fernando Gómez Zaldívar, Edmundo Molina

This paper offers a systematic review of the international literature addressing the impact of the Special Economic Zone (SEZ) model on regional economic development. By identifying, critically assessing, and compiling the most relevant and high-quality studies on the topic, the basic conditions for the success or failure of this industrial policy model come to light. Key results are then discussed with an eye to the characteristics of the states in which these models will be implemented in Mexico.

Key Words: Special economic zones, regional development, industrial policy, foreign direct investment, literature review.

Creativity, Efficiency, and Spatial Concentration in Mexico

Rafael Borrayo, Luis Quintana

Regional competitiveness evolves in close parallel to productivity, which, at present, is increasingly tied to creativity and innovation. A range of studies on the theme recognize that the spatial concentration of creativity drives productivity; nevertheless, few have managed to quantify the magnitude of this relationship. Via a stochastic production frontier analysis, this paper evaluates the levels of technical efficiency and productivity found across Mexico's 59 metropolitan regions (MR) and measures the contribution of the creative activities located in each of them.

Key Words: Metropolitan zones, regional competitiveness, technical efficiency, and productivity, production and efficiency frontier models.

The Spillover Effects of Industrial Exports in Latin American Countries

Marco Antonio Márquez

Against the backdrop of trade liberalization, economies in Latin America have endeavored to capitalize on their comparative advantages and join global production processes; despite the fact that industrial exports have grown, however, they have had only a modest impact in terms of boosting the product in Latin American economies. The objective of this paper is to determine the influence of industrial exports on the product in six Latin American countries, using the input-output model and the network theory. The hypothesis sets out to prove that out of an economy's total transactions, the spillover effects from the industrial sector exports in each country are more diversified the more the country trades with the United States, even if these effects are weak, due to the low structural articulation in each of them.

Key Words: Latin America, exports, industrial sector, trade, network theory, Miyazawa multipliers.

The Impact of Franchising on Development

Cintya Lanchimba, Daniela Medina

In the universe of literature on franchises, several studies have examined the impact of franchising on economic growth, tending to focus on growth rather than development, although the empirical research has already concluded that franchising does have an influence on economic growth. Likewise, some articles have underscored the importance and influence of franchising on development, but have failed to provide empirical proof of its true sway. With that in mind, this paper provides empirical evidence demonstrating the relationship between franchising and development.

Key Words: Franchises, economic development, industrial organization, empirical studies, Latin America.

Managing Pemex as a State Productive Enterprise

Angélica Tacuba, Luis Augusto Chávez

Three years out from the 2014 Energy Reform, this study explores how Petróleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has performed as a State Productive Enterprise (SPE). The analysis consists of two parts: the first is an overview of the assumptions underlying the reform, a diagnosis of the hydrocarbon sector, and the solutions and instruments set in motion as a result of the legal changes made and Pemex's new operating model. The second provides an assessment of the progress or contradictions involved in Pemex's track record as an SPE with respect to the reform's original premises. The findings point to a lot of unfinished work in the spheres of corporative governance, tax structure, and partnerships and contracts in the oil and oil products sectors.

Key Words: Energy reform, hydrocarbons, state-owned enterprise, private investment, tax structure.

Obesity and Public Health in Mexico: Transforming the Hegemonic Food Supply and

Felipe Torres, Agustín Rojas

Excess weight and obesity are a major public health problem affecting Mexico's economic development. Studying them from a medical or epidemiological approach has proved insufficient, given the size of the problem and myriad factors underlying it. It is therefore time to bring an economic perspective into the analysis to find the structural causes, looking at the ways food is eaten, which shape the hegemonic supply and demand patterns imposed by the globalization of the markets, infringing on local patterns. The empirical evidence shows that the shift from a traditional diet to an industrialized diet with high sugar content and refined flours has fueled the prevalence of this public health problem.

Key Words:Food consumption, supply and demand, excess weight and obesity, food industry, public health.

A Critical Approach to the Principal Theories on Technological Change

Yasmani Jimenez-Barrera

This paper delves into the main theories on and approaches to technological change, aiming to demonstrate the currency of Karl Marx's precepts in contemporary discussions. Methodologically, the neoclassical and neo-Schumpeterian schools of thought were unified, pursuant to the conventional approach, when it came to technological change, despite their discrepancies; nevertheless, in the Marxist concept, Marx's analyses prevailed over those issued by other authors. The contrast between the two theoretical standpoints was predicated on four fundamental variables: 1) systemic character, 2) the nature of technological change, 3) attitude toward the innovative process, and 4) the scope of the explanation revolving around growth and development.

Key Words: Technological change, neoclassical and neo-Schumpeterian theories, Marxist theory, capitalist accumulation.