Volume 44, Number 174,
July-September 2013
Salary Gaps in Uruguay: Gender, Segregation
and Unequal Labor Qualifications
Alma Espino
Skill Mismatch

The proportion of salaried workers by type of occupation according to isco-88 at three digits affected by over and under-education with respect to required educational levels is given in Table 3. There is a trend towards a reduction in under-qualification for both genders during this period. Women have a lower proportion of under-qualification, which is a reflection of the higher average educational level of the female workforce. Over-qualification is a problem of greater magnitude — it affects a greater percentage of the workforce in aggregate — than under-qualification, and is growing over time. The increased impact of over-education in general, but especially for women, is due to difficulties in accessing employment, which encourages obtaining higher education and aspiring to a broader range of opportunities (signaling). Segregation — both gender horizontal and vertical — is increasing as the rate of female activity does, which contributes to the explanation. In other words, regardless of educational training, women tend to be hired with preference for certain fields or types of occupations (Espino, 2011).


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PROBLEMAS DEL DESARROLLO. REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE ECONOMÍA, Volume 49, Number 194 July-September 2018 is a quarterly publication by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, D.F. by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán,
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