Volume 44, Number 174,
July-September 2013
Salary Gaps in Uruguay: Gender, Segregation
and Unequal Labor Qualifications
Alma Espino
Occupational Segregation by Gender

The results of the calculations for occupational segregation by gender are given in Table 2. Occupational segregation tended to increase throughout the decade in the private sector and decrease in the public arena. Amarante and Espino (2002) found that occupational segregation in the Uruguayan labor market was high, with a di value of 0.568 in 1999, 0.539 among public sector salaried employees and 0.607 for the private sector, although this work was done with a higher level of aggregation. The di was substantially lower for segregation measured by activity sector (at one digit of the ciiu classification adopted by Uruguay). It was lower in the private sector but significantly decreased in the public arena. Lower segregation in the public sector has also ben observed in other studies, which would be in keeping with methods of hiring and promotion (for example, contests), which have allowed women to enter management positions and have greater representation at the professional level, although they are significantly over-represented in teaching jobs.9



Reduced gender occupational segregation is compatible with the drop observed in the salary gap by gender in this time period. Of particular note is the fact that for public sector salaried workers, this gap has tended to close and in some periods even favors women.

9 This lower segregation may be a positive aspect if the spaces gained are in keeping with a real break from traditional schemes of job assignment, but it may also reflect unequal relations, where men do not remain in the public sector because they receive higher remuneration in the private sector, where segregation is greater (Ibáñez Pascual, 2010).

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PROBLEMAS DEL DESARROLLO. REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE ECONOMÍA, Volume 49, Number 194 July-September 2018 is a quarterly publication by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, D.F. by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán,
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