Volume 44, Number 174,
July-September 2013
The Decline of the United States:
Global Historical Context
Alejandro Dabat and Paulo Leal
COMPETITIVE AND HEGEMONIC ASPECTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL DECLINE

In economic terms, what we have described here can be seen through the lens of domestic production (gdp)
(see Table 2) and technology, as well as international trade.23



The US loss of position also occurred for the electronic and information technology sectors, upon which the economic recovery of the last quarter of the past century has been based. Particularly in the global computer trade, the United States was swept away by Chinese competition (see Table 3), and US industry was forced to increase its defensive outsourcing to Mexico starting in 201024 as well, as shown in the same Table.


23 The US commercial deficit reached its maximum in 2008, and later fell slightly in 2009 due to a greater decrease in imports (25%) than exports. Between 2004 and 2008, the trade deficit for goods reached an average of 43% of goods imports (less than half), which was just under the surplus for services. Still, even for services, results for revenue from royalties and licenses never reached 10% of the total commercial deficit, despite the undeniable global leadership of the US in areas such as patents, brands and franchises.

24 The US computer industry increased outsourcing to Mexico starting in 2010, in response to the high cost of Chinese labor and the more powerful national industry led there by Lenovo, following ibm’s acquisition. For Mexico, paradoxically, the increase in production and exports of the maquiladora industry immediately counteracted (through greater inflow of dollars and jobs in the northern region of the country) the general effects of the US crisis. However, this came at a cost of increasing the already enormous dependence on the US economy and its impact on the national economy (see Dabat, Leal and Romo, 2012).

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PROBLEMAS DEL DESARROLLO. REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE ECONOMÍA, Volume 49, Number 194 July-September 2018 is a quarterly publication by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, D.F. by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán,
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