Volume 44, Number 174,
July-September 2013
Colombia: Commercial Integration
and Trade Imbalances in the Pacific Basin
Jaime Torres
IMPORT PENETRATION AND THE EVOLUTION OF EMPLOYMENT BY SECTOR ( ...continuation )


Figure 8. Chemical Industry Import/Export Rate and Employment Variation (1997=100)

Source: http://dane.gov.co/index.php?option=com:content&view=article&id=76<emid=56, consulted July 9, 2012.

However, the situation is rather different for other Colombian industrial items with medium levels of technology, such as the automotive sector (see Figure 9), the machinery and equipment industries, where import penetration coefficients for the Pacific Basin reached 400% for cars and 1,200% for machinery and equipment. Total employment levels for these industries maintained moderate growth trends, while the elasticity of export efforts was clearly favorable for the Asian nations.8


Figure 9. Automotive Industry Import/Export Rate and Employment Variation (1997=100)

Source: http://dane.gov.co/index.php?option=com:content&view=article&id=76<emid=56, consulted July 9, 2012.

8 The concept of export elasticity refers to the marginal (or annual) increase in the value of a nation’s exports as compared to the increase in their imports during the same time period. These variations are related here for products of a single economic sector.

Published in Mexico, 2012-2017 © D.R. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
PROBLEMAS DEL DESARROLLO. REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE ECONOMÍA, Volume 49, Number 192, January-March is a quarterly publication by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, D.F. by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán,
CP 04510, México, D.F. Tel (52 55) 56 23 01 05 and (52 55) 56 24 23 39, fax (52 55) 56 23 00 97, www.probdes.iiec.unam.mx, revprode@unam.mx. Journal Editor: Alicia Girón González. Reservation of rights to exclusive use of the title: 04-2012-070613560300-203, ISSN: pending. Person responsible for the latest update of this issue: Minerva García, Circuito Maestro Mario de la Cueva s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México D.F., latest update: Feb 23th, 2018.
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