Volume 44, Number 173,
April-June 2013
Towards a New Development Model?
from a Regulatory Perspective. Argentina 2003-2010
Ignacio de Angelis, Mariana Calvento and Mariano Roark
Institutional Forms: The State ( ...continuation )

When analyzing the tax collection structure as a key determinant of spending, it should be pointed out that the increase in national tax collection as a percentage of gdp doubled between 2002 and 2010, due to the establishment of new tax categories and greater tax pressure, resulting from an increase in efficiency among collecting entities.

Still, the main source of tax earnings for the national budget resulted from consumption charges (Figure 2), which mainly affect low income sectors and at the same time are a sign that the regressive tax structure imposed during the time of neoliberal transformation during the last military dictatorship persists.

Figure 2. Origin of Tax Revenue, 2002-2010
Source: Ministry of Economy (2011)

In conclusion, starting in 2003 there was an undeniable change in the conception and role of the State, fundamentally driven by new political management. However, strong structural influencing factors left over from the neoliberal cycle still persist in each of the institutional forms, which are only in effect because of the State. As a result, this change in perspective should be considered in light of the aforementioned factors, which are still the main unresolved challenges to the consolidation of the new model.

Institutional Forms: International Insertion

The economic and political insertion of the development model in the international system includes the set of rules that govern relations between the State and the rest of the world, both in terms of the insertion of the productive structure in the global market and the international division of labor, as well as adherence to the standards that regulate political, diplomatic and economic relations between entities in the international system.

In economic terms, this institutional form will influence where foreign direct investment is directed, international commercial flows and the international exchange of products, services, technology transfer and labor (Neffa, 2006: 285). In this way, the new economic profile of insertion is principally characterized by competitive exchange rates, diversification and market expansion.

The possibility to obtain positive balances in fiscal accounts and foreign commerce since 2003 has allowed for sustained growth of international reserves, doubling the maximum amounts obtained during the convertibility regime. This has allowed a sustainable growth strategy defined by the search for greater autonomy from financial bodies and the international establishment.

Published in Mexico, 2012-2017 © D.R. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
PROBLEMAS DEL DESARROLLO. REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE ECONOMÍA, Volume 48, Number 191, October-December 2017 is a quarterly publication by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, D.F. by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán,
CP 04510, México, D.F. Tel (52 55) 56 23 01 05 and (52 55) 56 24 23 39, fax (52 55) 56 23 00 97, www.probdes.iiec.unam.mx, revprode@unam.mx. Journal Editor: Alicia Girón González. Reservation of rights to exclusive use of the title: 04-2012-070613560300-203, ISSN: pending. Person responsible for the latest update of this issue: Minerva García, Circuito Maestro Mario de la Cueva s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México D.F., latest update: Nov 13th, 2017.
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