Socio-Environmental Development Index
for the State of Bahía
Leonardo Araújo, Elaine Fernandes and Patrícia Rosado

After building the Environmental Conditions Index (eci) the aim was to build an index that reflected the level of human development in Bahía’s municipalities, including questions relating to the environment. The result was the Socio-Economic Environmental Development Index [idsa in Spanish] whose principal objective was to describe living conditions in municipalities in the State of Bahía, taking into account information on the natural environment in Bahía’s municipalities in addition to information on economic conditions, education levels and longevity.

The methodological procedures developed in the previous section to build the Environmental Conditions Index were used to construct the idsa , but adapted especially. Initially it was necessary to estimate and build a partial index, as was the case for the eci . This index is known as the Partial Index of Socio-economic Environmental Development (pised). This was estimated and constructed by means of Equation 4, the common factors obtained by factorial analysis by principal component analysis.


in which the pised is the Partial Index of Socio-economic Environmental Development associated with the ith municipality in question; Fij are the factorial points estimated according to the decomposition procedure of the principal components. The factorial analysis was conducted for the following indicators: Life Expectancy at Birth (le), Income per capita (ipc), Gross School Attendance Rate (gstr) and Environmental Conditions Index (eci ).

After building the Partial Index of Socio-economic Environmental Development, weighting was attributed to each of the dimensions cited above, through rls . This index was used as a dependent variable and Income per capita, Life Expectancy at Birth, School Attendance Rate and Environmental Conditions Index were the explanatory variables. The idsa , associated with the ithmunicipality, was constructed as follows:


in which the weightings Pj are estimated by multiple regression and Xi are the explanatory variables.

To better visualize and understand the results of the study, the same classification the un used for the hdi has been used in this study. This index is classified in four groups: very high human development (with an hdi of 0,900 or above), medium high human development (an hdi of 0,800 to 0,899) medium human development (hdi of 0,500 to 0,799) and low human development (hdi below 0,500) (undp, 2009).

Environmental Conditions Index for the Municipalities of Bahía

Given the objective to build an index measuring development levels in Bahía municipalities, taking environmental conditions into account, the current study initially devised the eci for each of Bahía’s state municipalities. The index was calculated to include the traditional hdi and so better represent the population’s quality of life.