Volume 43, Number 168,
January-March 2012
Interstate Tourism Development
between Puerto Vallarta and Bahía de Banderas: Mexico
Marco A. Merchand Rojas
CONCLUSIONS ( ...continuation )

As such, regions with productive potential that favors fdi would be located in specific areas to accommodate business conglomerates in specific sectors (appliances, automobiles, profitable agriculture production, vegetables, flowers and fruits, and of course, the promotion of tourism activity). Here we would find that the configuration of a region's network of companies has more to do with production on an international level than with the destination country.

The role of the federal and local State is key to allow businesses to become established without problems, and to create a welcoming business climate so that transnational development stabilizes in favor of a transitional tourism model that supposedly "will bring about multiplicative effects for employment and income." The State is not meant to create obstacles for these businesses. On the contrary, the state should create suitable (legal) conditions that bring about an environment friendly to business conglomerates and hotel chains.

Finally, the economic impacts of tourism can be classified as both positive and negative. The former category encompasses capital inflow, job creation, infrastructure improvement, stimulus for business activity and dynamization of the regional economy. Negative impacts include increased exports, a distorted labor market, insufficient public services infrastructure, lack of housing, inflation, and high speculation on land and real estate prices. Tourism acts as a creator, consumer and destroyer of the environment, and generally influences or modifies regional structures. Tourism produces population concentration as a result of migration from rural zones into tourism centers, producing logical consequences related to public services such as water, drainage, housing, electricity, etc., and drives the construction of cities that in developed countries would generally exist in a state of disorder and chaos.

The World Tourism Organization (wto) recognizes that private foreign interests drive tourism. It is difficult to increase local economic benefits when owners are largely foreign, because capital flight is substantial, and there are few local connections. 26

Carrillo, S., Urbanización y globalización en el Occidente de México. http://www.sicbasa.com/tuto/amecider, 2007.

Castellano, M. and A. Pedreño, Los nuevos braceros del ocio. Sonrisas, cuerpos flexibles e identidad
de empresa en el sector turístico, Mino y Dávila Editores, Madrid, 2006.
cepal (eclac), "La inversión extranjera en América Latina y El Caribe, 2003" cepal, Santiago de Chile, 2006.

Fujita, M., P. Krugman, and A. Venables, Economía espacial. Las ciudades, las regiones y el comercio
internacional, Ariel Economía, Barcelona, Spain, 2000.
INEGI, Conteo de población y vivienda, 2005.

Garza and Rivera, Dinámica macroeconómica de las ciudades en México, Tomo I, INEGI-COLMEX-IIS-unam, 1994.

Harvey, David, Espacios del capital, Akal, Spain, 2007.

--París, capital de la modernidad, Akal, Madrid, Spain, 2008.

Jiménez, Alfonso, Cadenas hoteleras: estrategias y territorio en El Caribe mexicano, Doctorate thesis in
Geography, unam, 2009.

26 The concept of "capital flight" refers to the large quantities of money spent on imports and services for tourist needs. Profits derived from tourism flow out of a local economic area when local economic connections are weak. The term connections refers to boosting economic benefits for the local community and increasing poverty reduction, consistent with amplifying connections between the structured sector (hotels, housing, restaurants, tourist operators and transportation) and the local economy. If local economic connections are increased, profit flight will decrease as a result.

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PROBLEMAS DEL DESARROLLO. REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE ECONOMÍA, Volume 49, Number 195 October-December 2018 is a quarterly publication by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, D.F. by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán,
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