Volume 43, Number 168,
January-March 2012
Stock Markets and their Relationship
with the Real Economy in Latin America
Samuel Brugger and Edgar Ortiz
Stock Market Activity and Development in Latin America

Unit Roots Analysis ( ...continuation )

Cointegration Analysis

If when applying Johansen's model (Eq. 2, 3 and 4) the results and analysis in levels are ignored as the variables are not stationary, then the results are positive (Table 3). The trace test indicates that the null hypothesis is rejected. There are no cointegrating vectors. The trace statistic is greater than the critical values by 5%. In other words there are cointegrating vectors. Furthermore, where the trace test statistic is greater than the critical values, this indicates categorically that there is no more than one cointegrating vector. The results are similar to the maximum eigenvalue test. The maximum eigenvalue is 5% greater than the critical value; the inexistence of cointegrating vectors is rejected; and the eigenvalue confirms that there is no more than one cointegrating vector. In summary, according to Johansen's test, stock market returns and the percentage changes in gdp maintain an equilibrium relationship in the long term in all four cases.

Published in Mexico, 2012-2017 © D.R. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM).
PROBLEMAS DEL DESARROLLO. REVISTA LATINOAMERICANA DE ECONOMÍA, Volume 49, Number 193, April-June 2018 is a quarterly publication by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán, CP 04510, México, D.F. by Instituto de Investigaciones Económicas, Circuito Mario de la Cueva, Ciudad Universitaria, Coyoacán,
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The online journal Problemas del Desarrollo. Revista Latinoamericana de Economía corresponds to the printed edition of the same title with ISSN 0301-7036